*He emphasized that in patients who showed no first-rank symptoms, the disorder could be diagnosed exclusively on the basis of second-rank symptoms and an otherwise typical clinical appearance.
*Clinicians frequently ignore his warnings and sometimes see the absence of first-rank symptoms during a single interview as evidence that a person does not have schizophrenia.
- First-rank symptoms
- Audible thoughts
- Voices arguing or discussing or both
- Voices commenting
- Somatic passivity experiences
- Thought withdrawal and other experiences of influenced thought
- Thought broadcasting
- Delusional perceptions
- All other experiences involving volition made affects, and made impulses
- Second-rank symptoms
- Other disorders of perception
- Sudden delusional ideas
- Depressive and euphoric mood changes
- Feelings of emotional impoverishment
*A memory device that is frequently used to remember the first rank symptoms is ABCD: Auditory hallucinations, Broadcasting of thought, Controlled thought (delusions of control),Delusional perception.